Indian subcontinent, that Roman politicians and historians are on record decrying the loss of silver and gold to buy silk to pamper India sri lanka relations essay wives, and the southern route grew to eclipse and then totally supplant the overland trade route. It survived, despite pressure from Islamic forces, until the 11th century, when it was reconfigured in a dynastic squabble. Communications were reinstated after the Muslim forces retreated. The Seleucid and the Ptolemaic dynasties controlled trade networks to India before the establishment of Roman Egypt.
Indians and the Greeks was not comparable to that of later Indo-Roman trade. Egypt and the subcontinent did not involve direct sailings. Indian kingdoms using the Red Sea ports. Romans took over and further developed the already existing trade using these ports. Indian copy of the same, 1st century CE. Prior to Roman expansion, the various peoples of the subcontinent had established strong maritime trade with other countries. The dramatic increase in the importance of Indian ports, however, did not occur until the opening of the Red Sea by the Greeks and the Romans’ attainment concerning the region’s seasonal monsoons.
The first two centuries of the Common Era indicate a marked increase in trade between western India and the Roman east by sea. The area was noted for its strong tidal currents, turbulent waves and rocky sea-beds were dangerous for shipping experience. The anchors of ships would be caught by the waves and quickly detach to capsize the vessel or cause a shipwreck. Onshore and offshore explorations have been carried out around Bet Dwarka Island since 1983. The finds discovered include lead and stone objects buried in sediment and considered to be anchors due to their axial holes. Though it is unlikely that the remains of the shipwreck’s hull survived, offshore explorations in 2000 and 2001 have yielded seven differently-sized amphoras, two lead anchors, forty-two stone anchors of different types, a supply of potsherds, and a circular lead ingot. The remains of the seven amphoras were of a thick, coarse fabric with a rough surface, which was used for exporting wine and olive oil from the Roman Empire.
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Archeologists have concluded that most of these were wine amphoras, since olive oil was in less demand in the subcontinent. Since the discoveries at Bet Dwarka are significant for the maritime history of the region, archeologists have researched the resources in India. Despite the unfavorable conditions the island is situated in, the following items have made Bet Dwarka as well as the rest of western India an important place for trade. Indigo was used as a color while cotton cloth was used as articles of clothing. Furthermore, the subcontinent exported ebony for fashioned furniture in Rome.
The Roman Empire also imported Indian lime, peach, and various other fruits for medicine. Western India, as a result, was the recipient of large amounts of Roman gold during this time. Since one must sail against the narrow gulfs of western India, special large boats were used and ship development was demanded. At the entrance of the gulf, large ships called trappaga and cotymba helped guide foreign vessels safely to the harbor. These ships were capable of relatively long coastal cruises, and several seals have depicted this type of ship. In each seal, parallel bands were suggested to represent the beams of the ship.
In the center of the vessel is a single mast with a tripod base. Apart from the recent explorations, close trade relations as well as the development of ship building were supported by the discovery of several Roman coins. On these coins were depictions of two strongly constructed masted ships. Indian development in seafaring due to the increase in Indo-Roman commerce. In addition, the silver Roman coins discovered in western India primarily come from the 1st, 2nd, and 5th centuries. These Roman coins also suggest that the Indian peninsula possessed a stable sea borne trade with Rome during 1st and 2nd century AD.
Land routes, during the time of Augustus, were also used for Indian embassies to reach Rome. The discoveries found on Bet Dwarka and on other areas on the western coast of India strongly indicate that there were strong Indo-Roman trade relations during the first two centuries of the Common Era. The 3rd century, however, was the demise of the Indo-Roman trade. The sea-route between Rome and India was shut down, and as a result, the trading reverted to the time prior to Roman expansion and exploration. Roman annexation of Egypt indicates that monsoon was known from his time. For what fraction of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead? India probably in the south.